Sunday, January 6, 2013

20 Practical RPM Examples


RPM (Red Hat Package Manager) is a default Open Source Package Management utility for Red Hat based systems like (RHEL, CentOS and Fedora). The tool allows system administrators and users to install, update, uninstall, query, verify and manage system software packages in Linux operating systems. The RPM formerly known as .rpm file includes compiled software programs and libraries needed by the packages. This utility only works with packages built on .rpm format.

RPM is free and released under GPL (General Public License).
RPM keeps the information of all the installed packages under /var/lib/rpm database.
RPM is the only way to install packages under Red Hat based Linux systems, if you’ve installed packages using source code, then rpm won’t manage it.
RPM deals with .rpm files, which contains the actual information about the packages such as: what it is, from where it comes, dependencies info, version info etc.


1. How to Check an RPM Signature Package
Always check the PGP signature of packages before installing them on your Linux systems and make sure its integrity and origin are OK. Use the following command with –checksig (check signature) option to check the signature of a package called pidgin.

[root@anneke]# rpm --checksig pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm
pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm: rsa sha1 (md5) pgp md5 OK
[root@anneke]#

2. How to Install an RPM Package
To install a rpm software package, use the following command with -i option. For example:

[root@anneke]# rpm -ivh pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:pidgin                 ########################################### [100%]
[root@anneke]#

Flags:
-i : install a package
-v : verbose for a nicer display
-h: print hash marks as the package archive is unpacked.

3. How to check dependencies of RPM Package before Installing
Let’s say you would like to do a dependency check before installing or upgrading a package. Use the following command to check the dependencies of BitTorrent-5.2.2-1-Python2.4.noarch.rpm package. It will display the list of dependencies of theq package.

[root@anneke]# rpm -qpR BitTorrent-5.2.2-1-Python2.4.noarch.rpm
/usr/bin/python2.4
python >= 2.3
python(abi) = 2.4
python-crypto >= 2.0
python-psyco
python-twisted >= 2.0
python-zopeinterface
rpmlib(CompressedFileNames) = 2.6
[root@anneke]#

Flags:
-q : Query a package
-p : List capabilities this package provides.
-R: List capabilities on which this package depends..

4. How to Install a RPM Package Without Dependencies
If you know that all needed packages are already installed, you can ignore those dependencies by using the option –nodeps (no dependencies check) before installing the package.

[root@anneke]# rpm -ivh --nodeps BitTorrent-5.2.2-1-Python2.4.noarch.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:BitTorrent             ########################################### [100%]
[root@anneke]#

The above command forcefully install rpm package by ignoring dependencies errors, but if those dependencies files are missing, then the program will not work at all, until you install them.

5. How to check an Installed RPM Package
Using -q option with package name will show whether a rpm is installed or not.

[root@anneke]# rpm -q BitTorrent
BitTorrent-5.2.2-1.noarch
[root@anneke]#

6. How to List all files of an installed RPM package
To view all the files of an installed rpm packages, use the -ql (query list).

[root@anneke]# rpm -ql BitTorrent
/usr/bin/bittorrent
/usr/bin/bittorrent-console
/usr/bin/bittorrent-curses
/usr/bin/bittorrent-tracker
/usr/bin/changetracker-console
/usr/bin/launchmany-console
/usr/bin/launchmany-curses
/usr/bin/maketorrent
/usr/bin/maketorrent-console
/usr/bin/torrentinfo-console
[root@anneke]#

7. How to List Recently Installed RPM Packages
The following rpm command with -qa (query all) option, will list all the recently installed rpm packages.

[root@anneke]# rpm -qa --last
BitTorrent-5.2.2-1.noarch                     Tue 04 Dec 2012 05:14:06 PM BDT
pidgin-2.7.9-5.el6.2.i686                     Tue 04 Dec 2012 05:13:51 PM BDT
cyrus-sasl-devel-2.1.23-13.el6_3.1.i686       Tue 04 Dec 2012 04:43:06 PM BDT
cyrus-sasl-2.1.23-13.el6_3.1.i686             Tue 04 Dec 2012 04:43:05 PM BDT
cyrus-sasl-md5-2.1.23-13.el6_3.1.i686         Tue 04 Dec 2012 04:43:04 PM BDT
cyrus-sasl-plain-2.1.23-13.el6_3.1.i686       Tue 04 Dec 2012 04:43:03 PM BDT
[root@anneke]#

8. How to List All Installed RPM Packages
Type the following command to print the all the names of installed packages on your Linux system.

[root@anneke]# rpm -qa
initscripts-9.03.31-2.el6.centos.i686
polkit-desktop-policy-0.96-2.el6_0.1.noarch
thunderbird-17.0-1.el6.remi.i686
[...]
[root@anneke]#

9. How to Upgrade a RPM Package
If we want to upgrade any RPM package “–U” (upgrade) option will be used. One of the major advantages of using this option is that it will not only upgrade the latest version of any package, but it will also maintain the backup of the older package so that in case if the newer upgraded package does not run the previously installed package can be used again.

[root@anneke]# rpm -Uvh nx-3.5.0-2.el6.centos.i686.rpm
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:nx                     ########################################### [100%]
[root@anneke]#

10. How to Remove a RPM Package
To uninstall an RPM package, we use the package name, not the original package name nx-3.5.0-2.el6.centos.i686.rpm. The -e (erase) option is used to remove package.

[root@anneke]# rpm -evv nx

11. How to Remove an RPM Package Without Dependencies
The –nodeps (do not check dependencies) option forcefully remove the rpm package from the system. But keep in mind removing particular package may break other working applications.

[root@anneke]# rpm -ev --nodeps vsftpd

12. How to Query a file that belongs to which RPM Package
Let’s say, you have list of files and you would like to find out which package belongs to these files. For example, the following command with -qf (query file) option will show you a file /usr/bin/htpasswd is own by package httpd-tools-2.2.15-15.el6.centos.1.i686.

[root@anneke]# rpm -qf /usr/bin/htpasswd
httpd-tools-2.2.15-15.el6.centos.1.i686
[root@anneke]#

13. How to Query Information of an Installed RPM Package
Let’s say you have installed an rpm package and want to know the information about the package. The following -qi (query info) option will print the available information of the installed package.

[root@anneke]# rpm -qi vsftpd
Name        : vsftpd   Relocations: (not relocatable)
Version     : 2.2.2   Vendor: CentOS
Release     : 11.el6   Build Date: Fri 22 Jun 2012 01:54:24 PM BDT
Install Date: Mon 17 Sep 2012 07:55:28 PM BDT      Build Host: c6b8.bsys.dev.centos.org
Group       : System Environment/Daemons           Source RPM: vsftpd-2.2.2-11.el6.src.rpm
Size        : 351932                               License: GPLv2 with exceptions
Signature   : RSA/SHA1, Mon 25 Jun 2012 04:07:34 AM BDT, Key ID 0946fca2c105b9de
Packager    : CentOS BuildSystem <http://bugs.centos.org>
URL         : http://vsftpd.beasts.org/
Summary     : Very Secure Ftp Daemon
Description : vsftpd is a Very Secure FTP daemon. It was written completely from scratch.
[root@anneke]#

14. Get the Information of RPM Package Before Installing
You have download a package from the internet and want to know the information of a package before installing. For example, the following option -qip (query info package) will print the information of a package sqlbuddy.

[root@anneke]# rpm -qip sqlbuddy-1.3.3-1.noarch.rpm
Name        : sqlbuddy                     Relocations: (not relocatable)
Version     : 1.3.3                        Vendor: (none)
Release     : 1                            Build Date: Wed 02 Nov 2011 11:01:21 PM BDT
Install Date: (not installed)              Build Host: rpm.bar.baz
Group       : Applications/Internet        Source RPM: sqlbuddy-1.3.3-1.src.rpm
Size        : 1155804                      License: MIT
Signature   : (none)
Packager    : Erik M Jacobs
URL         : http://www.sqlbuddy.com/
Summary     : SQL Buddy รข Web based MySQL administration
Description : SQLBuddy is a PHP script that allows for web-based MySQL administration.
[root@anneke]#

15. How to Query documentation of Installed RPM Package
To get the list of available documentation of an installed package, use the following command with option -qdf (query document file) will display the manual pages related to vmstat package.

[root@anneke]# rpm -qdf /usr/bin/vmstat
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/BUGS
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/COPYING
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/COPYING.LIB
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/FAQ
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/NEWS
/usr/share/doc/procps-3.2.8/TODO
[root@anneke]#

16. How to Verify a RPM Package
Verifying a package compares information of installed files of the package against the rpm database. The -Vp (verify package) is used to verify a package.

[root@anneke downloads]# rpm -Vp sqlbuddy-1.3.3-1.noarch.rpm
S.5....T.  c /etc/httpd/conf.d/sqlbuddy.conf
[root@anneke]#

17. How to Verify all RPM Packages
Type the following command to verify all the installed rpm packages.

[root@anneke]# rpm -Va
S.5....T.  c /etc/rc.d/rc.local
.......T.  c /etc/dnsmasq.conf
.......T.    /etc/ld.so.conf.d/kernel-2.6.32-279.5.2.el6.i686.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/yum.conf
S.5....T.  c /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo
[root@anneke]#

18. How to Import an RPM GPG key
To verify RHEL/CentOS/Fedora packages, you must import the GPG key. To do so, execute the following command. It will import CentOS 6 GPG key.

[root@anneke]# rpm --import /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-6

19. How to List all Imported RPM GPG keys
To print all the imported GPG keys in your system, use the following command.

[root@anneke]# rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*
gpg-pubkey-0608b895-4bd22942
gpg-pubkey-7fac5991-4615767f
gpg-pubkey-0f2672c8-4cd950ee
gpg-pubkey-c105b9de-4e0fd3a3
gpg-pubkey-00f97f56-467e318a
gpg-pubkey-6b8d79e6-3f49313d
gpg-pubkey-849c449f-4cb9df30
[root@anneke]#

20. How To rebuild Corrupted RPM Database
Sometimes rpm database gets corrupted and stops all the functionality of rpm and other applications on the system. So, at the time we need to rebuild the rpm database and restore it with the help of following command.

[root@anneke]# cd /var/lib
[root@anneke]# rm __db*
[root@anneke]# rpm --rebuilddb
[root@anneke]# rpmdb_verify Packages

Thanks to http://www.tecmint.com